Roller bearings consist of an inner ring, an outer ring, and a set of rollers that are held between the two rings. The rollers are typically cylindrical but can also be tapered or needle-shaped. The inner and outer rings are typically made of steel, while the rollers are made of steel or a harder material such as ceramic or tungsten carbide.
There are several types of roller bearings, each with unique characteristics and applications. The most common types include:
Single-row rollers have one row of rolling elements. They have a simple, non-separable design and angular roller bearings that can only handle axial loads in one direction. The main advantage of single-row bearings is that they are an excellent option for high-speed applications. The rolling body load action line and the radial load action line are usually not on the same radial plane. Therefore, single-row rollers must be mounted in pairs when subjected to pure radial load.
On the other hand, double-row rollers have two rows of rolling elements. They can carry bidirectional radial and axial loads. However, they can restrict the axial displacement of the shaft and the casing within the bearing's axial clearance. Compared to single-row angular contact bearings, double-row angular contact bearings provide improved rigidity enabling them to endure overturning moments or tilting effects. Besides their enhanced rigidity, other advantages of double-row bearings include high load capacity and compactness.
Thrust bearings are specific rotary bearings used to handle high loads in hostile environments. They may feature various rolling elements, including needles, tapered, spherical, or cylindrical rollers, which divide the bearing rings. Thrust rollers handle axial and thrust loads parallel to the shaft's axis. Their speed rating varies based on the rolling element used. For instance, ball roller thrust bearings are excellent for high-speed applications, but cylindrical roller thrust bearings are limited to moderate speeds.
Cross Roller Bearings are a type of roller bearing with high rotation accuracy capable of bearing loads in every direction. Because it has orthogonally arranged cylindrical rollers, it can bear loads in every direction. This lets one crossed roller bearing replace more than one ball bearing, thus saving the space required by ball bearings, lowering the associated material costs.