ピローブロックベアリングの究極ガイド

ピローブロックベアリングの究極ガイド

ピローブロック軸受は、さまざまな産業および機械用途で重要な役割を果たしています。それらの設計と性能は、機器の安定性と効率に直接影響します。このガイドでは、ピロー ブロック ベアリングの定義、種類、利点、材料、潤滑、シール、用途、選択の考慮事項など、ピロー ブロック ベアリングのあらゆる側面を詳しく説明し、ピロー ブロック ベアリングをよりよく理解し使用するための包括的な情報を提供します。

ピロブロックベアリングとは何ですか?

ピローブロックベアリングは、回転シャフトを支持するために使用される取り付けベアリングで、通常は取り付けブラケットと密閉ベアリングで構成されます。ベアリングシートは通常ねずみ鋳鉄製で、分割型と一体型があります。分割ベアリング シートはメンテナンスや交換が容易なように取り外し可能ですが、一体型ベアリング シートは耐久性に優れています。ピローブロック軸受は、軸受の内輪を介してシャフトが自由に回転し、軸受の外輪がブラケットに固定されているシンプルな構造で、取り付けが容易で、主に低トルク、中量軸受に使用されます。アプリケーションをロードします。ピローブロック軸受は、コンベヤシステム、農業機械、産業用送風機などに多く使用されており、構造が簡単で取り付けが容易で効率的な性能を発揮するため人気があります。

ピローブロックベアリング

ピローブロック軸受は、高荷重や腐食環境で使用される垂直軸受シートとは異なります。どちらも同様の機能を持っていますが、構造と用途が大きく異なります。

ピローブロックベアリングの種類

ピローブロックベアリングは、内部ベアリングのタイプと設計構造に基づいて、次の主なタイプに分類できます。

Integral-bearing-housing-bearing
split pillow block bearing 1

一体型ベアリングハウジングベアリング

一体型ベアリングハウジングベアリングは、一体型ベアリングハウジングと内部ベアリングで構成されています。シンプルな構造で設置が容易で、軽荷重から中荷重の用途に適しています。この設計により、頻繁な取り付けと取り外しが必要なアプリケーションでも優れたパフォーマンスを発揮します。搬送システムや小型機械などの軽負荷および中負荷の用途に適しています。

シャフト付き分割ベアリングハウジング

軸付分割軸受箱は2つの部分から構成されているため、取り付けやメンテナンスが容易で、頻繁に交換やメンテナンスが必要な場合に適しています。その構造設計により、装置全体を分解することなくベアリングの交換やメンテナンスが可能になります。大型産業機器や重機など、頻繁にベアリング交換が必要な場面に最適です。

Pillow block ball bearings

Pillow block ball bearings are the most common type of pillow block bearings and are widely used in applications that require high precision and high-speed rotation. They have low friction, high speed and high load capacity. They have a simple structure consisting of an inner ring, an outer ring and a set of balls. These balls are fixed between the inner and outer rings by a cage, which can provide low friction and efficient rotational motion. The advantages of pillow block ball bearings are their smooth operation and low noise, which are suitable for equipment such as conveyors and industrial fans.

Pillow-block-ball-bearing

Pillow block roller bearings have a higher load capacity than ball bearings and are suitable for applications with heavy loads and shock loads. Based on the shape and arrangement of the rollers, pillow block roller bearings can be further divided into the following types:

円すいころ軸受

Tapered roller bearings consist of an inner ring, an outer ring, a cage and tapered rollers, which can support both radial and axial loads. Its structural design enables it to have a high load capacity when running at low to medium speeds, which is suitable for heavy machinery and construction equipment.

球面ころ軸受

Spherical roller bearings are self-aligning double-row bearings with crowned or spherical rolling elements that can automatically adjust angular errors within a certain range. They are suitable for applications with high loads and impact resistance, such as mining and heavy manufacturing.

Pillow block Tapered roller bearings
Pillow block Spherical roller bearings
Pillow block Cylindrical roller bearings

円筒ころ軸受

Cylindrical roller bearings have high radial load capacity and medium thrust loads. Their rolling elements are cylindrical, with high rigidity and load capacity, and are suitable for high-speed applications. They have a simple structure and low friction and are often used in industrial machinery.

針状ころ軸受

Needle roller bearings are similar to cylindrical roller bearings, but their rollers are smaller in diameter and longer in length, providing high load capacity in limited spaces, and are suitable for applications that require low profiles and radial loads.

Pillow block housing material

The material selection of pillow block housing directly affects its performance and service life. Different materials have different mechanical properties and environmental resistance, and are suitable for various industrial applications. The following are several common pillow block housing materials and their characteristics:

クロム鋼

Chrome steel is a high-carbon steel that contains a certain proportion of chromium. Chrome steel bearings are widely used in various industrial machinery due to their high strength and wear resistance. Chrome steel has high hardness and can withstand high load and high-speed operation environment. Its wear resistance allows the bearing to remain in good condition after long-term operation. In addition, chrome steel has good corrosion resistance and is suitable for some working environments with corrosive media.

鋳鉄

Cast iron is an economical and practical material that is widely used in the manufacture of pillow block housing. Cast iron bearings have good anti-seismic and shock-absorbing properties, and can effectively absorb vibrations and shocks generated during mechanical operation. Cast iron has moderate strength and hardness and can withstand medium load applications. Its price is relatively low and is suitable for some applications with limited budgets but requiring reliable performance. The main disadvantage of cast iron is its poor toughness and may break under high impact or severe vibration.

Pillow block housing Mild steel
Pillow block housing Aluminum
Pillow block housing PTFE
Pillow block housing Cast iron

アルミニウム

Aluminum is a lightweight material with good thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance. Aluminum pillow block housing is lightweight and suitable for applications that require equipment weight reduction and rapid heat dissipation. Although aluminum is not as strong as steel and cast iron, aluminum bearings perform well in some special applications, such as aerospace and automotive industries. Aluminum has good processability, is easy to manufacture and form, and can meet the design requirements of complex structures.

軟鋼

Mild steel is a steel with a low carbon content, which is inexpensive and suitable for light and medium load applications. Mild steel has relatively low strength and wear resistance, but its toughness and ductility are good and can withstand certain impact loads. Mild steel has good weldability, is easy to process and manufacture, and is widely used in household appliances and some light industrial equipment. The main disadvantage of mild steel is its poor corrosion resistance, and anti-corrosion measures need to be taken during use.

プラスチックナイロン

Nylon is a common engineering plastic with good corrosion resistance and wear resistance. Nylon pillow block housing is lightweight, easy to install, and suitable for humid and corrosive environments. Nylon has good self-lubricating properties and a low coefficient of friction, reducing the need for external lubrication. Nylon pillow blocks perform well in industries such as food processing and chemical industry that have high requirements for cleanliness and corrosion resistance. Its toughness and strength are good and can withstand medium load applications. However, nylon has poor high temperature resistance and is not suitable for high temperature environments.

PTFE(ポリテトラフルオロエチレン)

PTFE, also known as Teflon, is an engineering plastic with excellent chemical resistance and low friction coefficient. PTFE pillow blocks are suitable for high temperature and highly corrosive environments and can maintain stable performance under extreme conditions. PTFE materials do not absorb water and have good weather resistance. They are widely used in industries such as chemical industry, pharmaceutical industry, and food processing that have strict requirements for hygiene and corrosion resistance. Its disadvantage is that its strength and wear resistance are low, and it is usually used in combination with other materials to enhance its mechanical properties.

ステンレス鋼

Stainless steel is often used to manufacture pillow blocks that need to be used in harsh environments due to its excellent corrosion resistance. Stainless steel bearings not only have high strength and wear resistance, but can also be used for a long time in corrosive media such as moisture, acid and alkali. Its good thermal stability and mechanical properties make it widely used in food processing, pharmaceuticals, marine engineering and other fields. The main disadvantage of stainless steel is its high cost, but its excellent comprehensive performance makes it competitive in demanding applications.

ブロンズ

Bronze is a traditional bearing material with good wear resistance and self-lubricating properties. Bronze pillow block housing is suitable for medium load and speed applications and is widely used in mechanical manufacturing and engineering equipment. Bronze’s good processability and thermal conductivity make it stable in high temperature environments. Bronze materials are heavier and expensive, but their durability and reliability are irreplaceable in some critical applications.

Pillow Block Bearing Lubrication

Lubrication is an important factor in ensuring the proper operation and extended service life of pillow block bearings. Common lubrication methods include manual lubrication and self-lubrication.

手動注油

Manual lubrication requires the regular use of grease or oil to lubricate the bearing. The lubricant is delivered to the friction points of the bearing through a pump or accessories mounted on the bearing housing. Regular lubrication can reduce friction and prevent overheating and wear.

自己潤滑

Self-lubricating bearings are made of materials such as oil-impregnated bronze, graphite/metal alloys, and do not require external lubrication. These materials are able to absorb and release lubricants throughout the service life of the bearing, minimizing the chance of failure.

Sealing of pillow block bearings

The seal design is critical to preventing contaminants from entering the bearing and maintaining the effectiveness of the lubricant. Common seal types include:

Gap seals

Gap seals prevent contaminants from entering through the small gap between the bearing seat and the shaft, and are suitable for low speed and low load applications.

Light contact seals

Light contact seals prevent contaminants from entering through slight contact with the shaft surface, and are suitable for medium speed and load applications.

Heavy contact seals

Heavy contact seals prevent contaminants from entering through strong contact with the shaft surface, and are suitable for high speed and heavy load applications.

Auxiliary seals

Auxiliary seals are often used in combination with other seal types to provide additional protection and are suitable for extreme environments and high contamination applications.

Factors in selecting pillow block bearings

Choosing the right pillow block bearing is essential to ensure the normal operation of the equipment and extend its service life. When selecting pillow block bearings, multiple factors need to be considered, including load type and size, shaft size and fit, operating speed, environmental conditions, lubrication requirements, and cost-effectiveness. The following are several major factors that should be focused on when selecting pillow block bearings:

Load is one of the key factors affecting bearing selection. According to the type of load, it can be divided into radial load and axial load. Radial load is the force perpendicular to the axis direction, while axial load is the force along the axis direction. Different types of pillow block bearings have different load capacities. For example, ball bearings are suitable for lower radial and axial loads, while roller bearings are suitable for higher radial and axial loads.

When selecting pillow block bearings, it is necessary to determine the maximum load that the equipment will bear, including static load and dynamic load. Static load is the load that the equipment bears when it is stationary, while dynamic load is the load that the equipment bears during operation. According to the size and type of load, select a pillow block bearing with an appropriate load rating to ensure that it can operate reliably under the expected working conditions.

Shaft size and fit

The fit of the pillow block bearing to the shaft directly affects the performance and life of the bearing. The size of the shaft must match the inner diameter of the bearing to ensure that the bearing can be firmly mounted on the shaft while allowing free rotation of the shaft. When selecting a pillow block bearing, the diameter and length of the shaft should be accurately measured to ensure that the inner diameter of the bearing matches the size of the shaft.

In addition, the tolerance and surface finish of the shaft should also be considered. The tolerance of the shaft affects the fit accuracy of the bearing. Too large a tolerance may cause the bearing to loosen, while too small a tolerance may cause the bearing to be difficult to install or run smoothly. The surface finish of the shaft affects the friction and wear of the bearing. Too rough a surface may cause increased wear of the bearing.

潤滑要件

Lubrication is essential for the normal operation and long life of pillow block bearings. The selection of lubricants and lubrication methods should be determined according to the type of bearing, operating speed, load and environmental conditions. Common lubrication methods include manual lubrication and automatic lubrication. Manual lubrication is suitable for low-speed and medium-load applications, while automatic lubrication is suitable for high-speed and heavy-load applications.

When selecting lubricants, the viscosity, temperature resistance, oxidation resistance and wear resistance of the lubricant should be considered. For high or low temperature environments, lubricants with high or low temperature resistance should be selected. For high load and high speed applications, lubricants with high wear resistance should be selected. In addition, the compatibility of lubricants should be considered to avoid mixing different lubricants, which may lead to lubrication failure.

環境条件

The working environment of the equipment has an important influence on the selection of pillow block bearings. Environmental conditions include temperature, humidity, pollutants, corrosive media, etc. In high-temperature environments, bearing materials with good heat resistance, such as stainless steel or high-temperature alloys, should be selected. In low-temperature environments, bearing materials with good low-temperature performance, such as nylon or PTFE, should be selected.

Humidity and pollutants are also important factors affecting the selection of bearings. In humid or dusty environments, bearings with good sealing performance should be selected to prevent moisture and pollutants from entering the bearing interior, resulting in lubrication failure and increased wear. In corrosive environments, materials with good corrosion resistance, such as stainless steel or bearings with special coatings, should be selected.

動作速度

The operating speed of the pillow block bearing is an important factor that must be considered during the selection process. Different types of bearings have different speed limits, and exceeding this speed may cause the bearing to overheat, lubrication failure, and premature damage. Ball bearings are suitable for high-speed applications, while roller bearings are suitable for lower speed but high-load applications.

When selecting a pillow block bearing, the appropriate bearing type should be selected according to the operating speed of the equipment and ensure that its speed capability is within the expected operating range. In addition, the lubrication method and cooling effect of the bearing should also be considered to reduce the heat and friction generated during high-speed operation.

費用対効果

When selecting pillow block bearings, cost-effectiveness should also be considered. High-performance bearings are usually expensive, but they are also durable and reliable, which can reduce equipment downtime and maintenance costs. Therefore, when selecting pillow block bearings, factors such as initial purchase cost, installation and maintenance costs, as well as service life and performance should be considered comprehensively.

In some applications, it may be cost-effective to select high-quality pillow block bearings. Although their initial cost is higher, they can significantly reduce the total cost of ownership of the equipment and improve production efficiency and equipment reliability.

その他の特別な要件

In some specific applications, pillow block bearings may also need to meet some special requirements. For example, in industries with strict requirements on hygiene conditions such as food processing and pharmaceuticals, bearing materials and lubricants that meet food grade or pharmaceutical grade standards should be selected. In precision instruments and equipment, pillow block bearings with high precision and low noise performance should be selected.

まとめ

As a key component in mechanical equipment, pillow block bearings have a wide range of applications and important roles. By understanding its definition, types, advantages, materials, lubrication, sealing and applications, users can better select and use pillow block bearings to improve the performance and life of the equipment. The design and selection of pillow block bearings need to comprehensively consider factors such as load, speed, environment, etc. to ensure its reliable operation under various working conditions.

よくある質問(FAQ)

1. What is the service life of a pillow block bearing?
The service life of a pillow block bearing depends on a variety of factors, including operating conditions, maintenance methods, and load capacity. If properly installed and maintained, a pillow block bearing can last for many years. Under normal circumstances, good lubrication and regular inspection can greatly extend its service life.

2. Can I replace the insert bearing in the pillow block bearing seat?
Yes, if the insert bearing is worn or damaged, it can be replaced. Make sure the replacement bearing is compatible with the dimensions of the bearing seat and shaft. When replacing, it is recommended to inspect and maintain the bearing seat at the same time to ensure a good overall fit.

3. How often should I lubricate the pillow block bearing?
The frequency of lubrication depends on the operating conditions and the type of lubricant used. Generally, it is recommended to lubricate the pillow block bearing regularly according to the manufacturer’s guidelines. In environments with high loads or high speeds, the lubrication interval should be shorter.

4. Can pillow block bearings handle high-speed applications?
While pillow block bearings can handle moderate speeds, they may not be suitable for very high-speed applications. For high-speed applications, it is recommended to choose a bearing type that is specifically designed for high-speed operation, such as high-precision ball bearings or ceramic bearings.

5. Where can I buy pillow block bearings?
Various bearing suppliers (both online and offline) offer pillow block bearings. You can purchase pillow block bearings through professional bearing dealers, industrial equipment suppliers, or the manufacturer’s official website. Before purchasing, make sure that the products provided by the supplier meet your specifications and quality requirements.

6. How to install pillow block bearings?
When installing pillow block bearings, you should first ensure that the shaft and bearing seat are clean, and then follow the installation guidelines provided by the manufacturer. It is usually necessary to ensure that the shaft and bearing seat are well aligned and use appropriate tools and lubricants for installation. After installation, perform a short test run to check for any abnormalities.

7. Do pillow block bearings require regular inspections?
Yes, pillow block bearings require regular inspections to ensure that they are operating properly. Regular inspections can detect potential problems such as wear, insufficient lubrication, or poor alignment. Equipment failures and downtime can be avoided by timely maintenance and replacement of worn parts.

8. What are the common failures of pillow block bearings?
Common failures of pillow block bearings include overheating, increased noise, abnormal vibration, and lubricant leakage. These failures are usually caused by insufficient lubrication, bearing damage, improper installation, or poor shaft alignment. In the event of a failure, the machine should be stopped immediately for inspection and appropriate repair measures should be taken.

9. What environments are pillow block bearings suitable for?
Pillow block bearings are suitable for a variety of environments, including high temperature, high humidity, corrosive and dusty environments. Choosing the right material and seal design can enable pillow block bearings to maintain good performance and long service life in various harsh environments.

10. How to choose a suitable pillow block bearing?
Choosing a suitable pillow block bearing requires considering factors such as load type and size, operating speed, environmental conditions, lubrication requirements and cost-effectiveness. According to the specific application requirements, select pillow block bearings of appropriate size, material and design to ensure that they can meet the performance requirements and service life of the equipment.